한국개발연구. Vol. 14, No. 4, December 1992, pp. 51-62
The purpose of this paper is to estimate the ratio of under-reported business income and related tax to that which is actually reported. The business in- come and tax are vulnerable to being under-reported. Information about the business income and thus income tax is private information. Without information costs, the tax agency cannot collect all the information about the business income and income tax. In Korea there are more than 600,000 proprietors. Therefore, the costs to investigate the accuracy of the taxpayes’ reports are substantial. The tax agency sets a level over which proprietors should report income ratio to total sales, which induces the under-report. To estimate the ratio of under-reported tax, the expenditure method is employed. By this method, the under-reported income can be easily presumed based on expenditures since expenditures are closely related to income. First, the consumption function is estimated by using cross-section data of 1986-89. Generally, the estimation results show the expected sign of the coefficients of the explanatory variables such as income, wealth, and family size. Second, the extent of under-reported business income and related tax is estimated by using the estimation results. The estimated ratios of under-reported tax and income to the actual tax and income fall in the range of 13~39% and 8~25% respectively. This estimation confirms the increasing tendency of the tax detection ratio in previous studies. However, it should be noted that this study is not based on data of the tax report but those of the urban household survey. Therefore, there still remains the possibility that the ratio of under-reported tax could be underestimated.